Tuesday, January 21, 2020
One of the oldest traditions in religious ethics is that of the just war. The "Just War Theory" specifies under which conditions war is just. Opposition based on the Just War Theory differs from that of pacifists. Oppositionists oppose particular wars but not all war. Their opposition is based on principals of justice rather than principles of pacifism (Becker 926). In the monotheistic religious traditions of Christianity and Islam, one role of God (or Allah) is to limit or control aggressions among humankind. In these religious traditions, God establishes an ideal or standard for the righteous use of force by followers of the faith. These standards, or just war traditions, address details of when to use force to solve disputes, to what extent the force should be employed, and whose blessing is required to insure that the use of force is appropriate in the eyes of God. If a situation satisfies the just war tradition in that culture and the aggression is carried out for religious reasons, the action can be further classified as holy war. Many Americans connect the concept of holy war only with Islam. In fact the Christian crusades during the middle ages were just such a holy war being waged by Christians against Muslims. Whether a particular situation qualifies as a holy war or not, the focus of the just war tradition is to ask God for approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Appeals to Ã¢â¬Ëholy warÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëreligious crusadeÃ¢â¬â¢ in one or another tradition are one type of appeal to divine authority regarding the use of force.Ã¢â¬ In recent history numerous conflicts, border skirmishes, battles and wars have arisen in which governments have decided to apply military force to varying degrees. Inevitably, politicians, policy-makers, religious and military leaders seek divine authority on which to base the struggle of their population and the loss of life. Have religious ethical values or theological aspects of the just war tradition influenced the nature of these military actions? Have the prevailing religious values kept military actions any more humane than they might otherwise have been? This paper will examine the theological roots of the just war tradition in the Christian and Islamic cultures. In addition, it will try to ascertain how religious ethics, and the just war tradition in particular, has been used between the Ã¢â¬ Å"warÃ¢â¬ on terror and the United States. Finally, this paper will dem... ...; Weigel, George. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Greenhaven Press, 1978. Ã¢â¬Å"Encyclopedia of Islam.Ã¢â¬ Esposito, John L. New York: International Union of Academies, 1960. Ã¢â¬Å"Exploring the Christian Faith.Ã¢â¬ Packer, J.I., Osborn, Grant R., Brown, Colin. Nashville, Tennessee: Lion Publishing, 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"Just War and Jihad, Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions.Ã¢â¬ Kelsay, John & Johnson, James Turner. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1991. Ã¢â¬Å"Living Religions.Ã¢â¬ Glasse, Cyril. Oxford University Press, 1995. Fisher, Mary Pat. 4th Ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"The Christian Theology Reader.Ã¢â¬ McGrath, Alister E. Malden, Ma & Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. 1995, 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"Pacifism.Ã¢â¬ Encyclopedia of Ethics. Ed. Becker, Lawrence C. New York & London: Garland Publishing, INC. 1992. Ã¢â¬Å"War and Peace.Ã¢â¬ Encyclopedia of Ethics. Ed. Becker, Lawrence C. New York & London: Garland Publishing, INC. 1992.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"An unprincipled adventurer in politics.Ã¢â¬ How fair is this interpretation of Disraeli in the period 1837- 1846? 1st DRAFT Over the years, the political character of Disraeli has bewildered historians as much as it did his colleagues. Previously historians, such as Machin, had an inclination to accept the view of his contemporary critics which was often, that in the obscurities of his politically life prior to 1846, Disraeli was Ã¢â¬Å"An unprincipled adventurer in politicsÃ¢â¬ , motivated by his own personal ambition rather that a doctrine of political principles. Yet recently there has been an upsurge in the number of historians that believe Disraeli did possess a clear set of ideas. These principles originated from DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of English history and values, and that a desire to defend and realize his conception of England gave his career coherence. Disraeli saw himself as a foe of dangerous cosmopolitan ideas that were damaging the national spirit and creating social conflict.1 Whilst Disraeli can be considered as unprincipled in his methods, DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying sense of political purpose, and the rhetoric he used to promote his objectives, never changed thus showing that he was truly a principled politician. In the early 1830s Disraeli stood in several elections as a Whig, Radical and as an Independent. However, Disraeli was a Tory by the time he won a seat in the House of Commons in 1837 representing the constituency of Maidstone. These frequent changes of allegiance to the different political groups are one of the ways which one can claim Disraeli to be unprincipled but was he? Disraeli claimed that his switch to conservatism was due to his belief in the fact that Conservatives defended the interests of the people. This claim for can be proven by the fact that in the 1822 the Tory party under Lord LiverpoolÃ¢â¬â¢s administration argued for the rights of Dissenters and even repealed the Test and Corporations Act which allowed for protestant dissenters to hold positions in public office. In addition, in 1836 Disraeli wrote and published the pamphlet Ã¢â¬ËVindication of the English Constitution (1835). In this pamphlet, Disraeli described the Whigs as a party, tried to monopolise the government by enslaving the monarchy during the 18th century. This evidence also leads to Ian St JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion that Disraeli was always a Ã¢â¬ËTory RadicalÃ¢â¬â¢ who believed that the Tory party was the true party since the Whigs pursued Ã¢â¬Ëa selfish agenda in the interests of a narrow eliteÃ¢â¬â¢2 . In addition, he claimed that the Tories had shown themselves to be a truly Ã¢â¬Ënational partyÃ¢â¬â¢, representing the views of Ã¢â¬Ënine-tenths of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢.3 This evidence agrees with DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s own claim that the Tory party was the actual party of the people, and in this way one can say that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s switch to conservatism was based upon a principled grounding. Further arguments that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s switch to conservatism was based on his principle and not on his own personal ambitions are that during DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier attempts for Parliament, he had always argued for agricultural assistance. This belief formed an integral part of the Tory partyÃ¢â¬â¢s principals since in 1815 a Tory government had introduced the Corn Laws as a means of protecting the British agricultural market from an influx of cheap foreign corn. In addition, one can argue that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s switch to Conservatism could also be a result from the fact that the Conservative party was the party Disraeli grew up around. During his youth Disraeli had met George Canning who was a friend of his father, in addition in the 1830s Disraeli was drawn to the ConservativeÃ¢â¬â¢s party social circles. Through these functions he was introduced to Lord Lyndhurst (a former Tory Chancellor) by Lady Henrietta Sykes.4 Therefore one can say that through his background, fundamental beliefs and social circles, Disraeli was a natural Conservative in the same way that Gladstone was a natural Liberal However, for many historians these are not the main reasons as to why Disraeli became a Conservative MP. In 1834 Disraeli received Conservative financial support from Lord Lyndhurst who was his patron.5 This inextricably linked Disraeli to the Conservative party, especially when one considers the fact that Disraeli was not competent with his domestic economics and would therefore never be able to repay Lyndhurst. In conclusion one can say that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion to the Conservative party was mainly a genuine switch even though it may have been influenced by the generosity of Lord Lyndhurst The character of Disraeli can also been seen to be principled in is by his belief that rich members of society have a duty to the poor. This belief was expressed in DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. This Bill founded a Poor Law Commission to supervise the national operation of the Poor Law system, included the moulding together of small parishes into Poor Law Unions and the building of workhouses in each union for the giving of poor relief. The act was Ã¢â¬Å"Whig-Benthamite reforming legislation of the periodÃ¢â¬ 6 passed by Earl Grey in order to dissuade people from becoming poor and wanting to join the Work house system. In 1840 Disraeli condemned the New Poor Law and the Work house system due to his belief that the government should help the poor in a paternal way. This marked the start of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in one nation Toryism. The idea of Ã¢â¬ËOne nation ToryismÃ¢â¬â¢ was present in DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Sybil, where he described Britain as Ã¢â¬Å"Two nations Ã¢â¬ ¦ the rich and the poor.Ã¢â¬ 7 Disraeli believed that the ideology of young England, the 1852 budget and the 1867 Reform Act. Therefore this shows that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s devotion to a Romanticised version of society where the upper classes had a duty to the poor was a stead fast principle of Disraelian politics. Another way in which Disraeli expressed his principles of preserving social harmony and helping the poor was through his sympathy to the Chartists. Chartism was a movement established in 1836 and controlled by working men who wanted to achieve parliamentary democracy as a step towards social and economic reform. In 1840 Disraeli was one of only 5 MPs who argued against the heavy punishments given to Chartists. This was due to the fact Disraeli believed that that political rights ensured social happiness. In his Chartist novel, Sybil or the two Nations, Disraeli gave the only fictional account of Chartism which understood the political demands of the movement8. This reaction to Chartism showed Disraeli as being principled as his desire to help the poor was present in his 1852 budget since he wanted to reduce indirect taxation on malt and tea, and levy the income budget. This would have helped with the working class who were more affected by indirect taxation than they were direct taxation as Gladstone would soon realise. In addition, one of the main values of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s Young England was the conservative and romantic strand of Social Toryism that included the patronage of Ã¢â¬Ënoblesse oblige as the basis for its paternalistic form of social organization.Ã¢â¬â¢9 In addition, through his 1867 Reform Bill Disraeli also enhanced the franchise of the professional and middle classes. Despite the fact that cynical historians such as Ã¢â¬â- may see DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to widen the political field as a way of getting a Conservative political stronghold, the line of thought that Disraeli was a Ã¢â¬ËRadical ToryÃ¢â¬â¢ dispels their claim. This is because Disraeli was radical in the sense that he welcomed the Reform and wanted to push British politics towards a Ã¢â¬Ëdemocratic principleÃ¢â¬â¢ of government with Ã¢â¬Ëtriennial elections and the secret ballot.Ã¢â¬â¢10 This notion of wider representation links in with the previous argument of why Disraeli became a conservative MP. By extending the political map Disraeli believe that the English Nation would be better represented as it would dispel the oligarchical control that the Whigs held in Parliament. Therefore one can argue that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s support of Chartism shows him as a principal politician as it reflects his belief in a need for reform in the Victorian political system. The case of Disraeli staying with his principles of a Romantic, paternalistic society is also evident in DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s works of fiction and his membership of Young England. Disraeli had helped to form the Young England group in 1842 based upon the that the middle class now had too much political power and an alliance between the aristocracy and the working class was needed to keep society functioning. Disraeli suggested that the aristocracy should use their power to help protect the poor yet a social hierarchy that should be maintained.11 Yet despite making these views of paternalism evident in his legislature such as the 1852 budget and his response to the 1843 Poor Law amendment historians such as Ian St John always ask how seriously did Disraeli regard young England? This is an obtuse question. Young England was an important tool of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s as it helped him to publicise his political beliefs and during 1842 they helped him attack the Poor Law, and the rationalist sys tem of thought. In addition, due to his unconventional education, Young England was also vital to Disraeli as it allowed him to network within the Conservative party despite the fact that he was an outsider due to his Jewish ethnicity and middle class background. One can also argue that Disraeli showed a clear commitment to the ideologies of Young England due to his writings. DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s novels Coningsby (1844), Sybil (1845) and Tancred (1847) all show concern about poverty and the injustice of the parliamentary system. In Coningsby, Disraeli attacked the Tamworth Manifesto as Ã¢â¬Ëan attempt to construct a party without principlesÃ¢â¬â¢. Moreover, his subsequent novel Sybil shows the start of one nation Toryism as it shows concern about the development of two nations causing a schism in society. This novels are critical as they all show Disraelian principals since all the novels show a continuation of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs of a Romantic notion of government and desire for reform and in this way can be said to be principled. Moreover Young England is proof of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s principles as it shows that his belief in a Romantic system of government and paternalism was as present in his ideals as a young man, as they were when he was Prime minister in the 1870s. The main argument for Disraeli being an Ã¢â¬Ëunprincipled adventurerÃ¢â¬â¢ in politics is often due to his relationship with Peel. There are often three main views to this section of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s early political career. The first view is that Disraeli led his attack on Peel for revenge. According to Norman Lowe Disraeli was Ã¢â¬Ëfurious when Peel did not offer him a place in his 1841 cabinet and perhaps because of this Disraeli lead the attack on Peel over the Corn Law repealÃ¢â¬â¢12.However this account for DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on Peel is highly flawed. In his biography on Disraeli, Christopher Hibbert claims that in 1844 Peel had wrote to Disraeli apologising for dismissing his offer to work in his cabinet and stating that if he had offended Disraeli it was Ã¢â¬Ëwholly unintentional on [his] partÃ¢â¬ 13 Hibbert then goes on to state that this apology showed that the animosity between the two men was no longer tangible and, soon after the apology was made Disrae li and three member of Young England Ã¢â¬Ëvoted with the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢14! In fact, Hibbert then goes onto disclose that Peel actually praised DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s speech on the Irish question calling it Ã¢â¬Ëvery ableÃ¢â¬â¢. These are all very clear examples showing how DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s direct and very public attack on Peel over the issue of the repeal of the Corn Laws could not have been a result of Peels rebuff in 1841. Both men had declared a truce with each other (although Grenville did comment in his diary that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s speech on the Ireland question was Ã¢â¬Ëunder the guise of compliment making an amusing attack on PeelÃ¢â¬â¢15) and it was for the benefit of the Tory party if this truce was maintained. After all as the historian Southgate remarked Ã¢â¬Ë[Disraeli had] no principle except that of maintaining party unityÃ¢â¬â¢.16 Therefore the claim that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on Peel was Ã¢â¬ËunprincipledÃ¢â¬â¢ as it was based upon a personal vendetta against the Tory leader is historically inaccurate. Another interpretation for DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on Peel given by Machin is that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks stemmed from a personal ambition. By attacking Peel over the 1846 Corn Law Crisis Disraeli apparently, made him name as an able orator and gave him his first political influence. Whilst the latter half of this statement may be viewed as true, Hibbert had already shown that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s skills for oration were already known by 1846 due to his speech on the Irish question which Ã¢â¬Ëwas so widely admired Ã¢â¬ ¦that his wife asked him to note downÃ¢â¬â¢17 However one cannot dispute that by defeating Peel Disraeli gained a political advantage. Even Jenkins states that the Ã¢â¬Ësubsequent events helped to catapult Disraeli into a position of authority which he could never have expected to achieve so quickly if at allÃ¢â¬â¢. Whilst this may be true by toppling Peel from power Disraeli has left the Tory party Ã¢â¬Ëin the political wildernessesÃ¢â¬â¢18 according to Machin. Commonsense dictates that whilst he was the most promising Conservative MP, a person cannot fulfil any political ambitions whilst their party is divided and weak. Therefore it is illogical to say that Disraeli uprooted Peel from power in a bid to further his own political career, as without Peel leading the Tories, any chance of political victory would have been harder to achieve. The final and perhaps most justified reason why historians such as Monypenny believed that Disraeli lead the attack on Peel was due to Ã¢â¬Ëa clear question of principle andÃ¢â¬ ¦pressure from his constituentsÃ¢â¬â¢19. Whilst many historians believe that Peel was a true statesman, David Eastcote takes the Victorian contemporary view that Peel was actually a turncoat. By championing the ideas of Catholic Emancipation, the Maynooth Grant and the Corn Law repeal Ã¢â¬ËPeel had quite deliberately isolated himself, and in so doing he had destroyed his party, or at any rate driven an immovable wedge between Peelism and Toryism. The destruction of the party was not an unfortunate, unintended consequence of the Corn Law crisis Ã¢â¬â it was, rather, quite deliberately engineered by PeelÃ¢â¬â¢.20 Although many people view that the Tory party disintegrated with the exodus of the Peelite fraction of the party, it is important to realise that PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s decision were unpopular with the core base of ultra-Tories. This was due to the fact that even though his party was in power, there were no real Tory party decisions as Peel preferred a Presidential style of governing rather than an executive governing style. In addition one can argue that Disraeli held a principle attack on peel due to the fact that whilst he had supported Peel in 1842 over further relaxation of the Corn Laws, he was unable to support Peel over their complete repeal. This was because he saw PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s desertion of Ã¢â¬ËProtection and as a betrayal of agricultural interestÃ¢â¬â¢ which was the Ã¢â¬Ëbackbone of the partyÃ¢â¬â¢21.Disraeli therefore declared alongside Lord Bentinck that they would Ã¢â¬ËneverÃ¢â¬ ¦be guilty or double dealing with the farmers of EnglandÃ¢â¬ ¦.or betraying our constituentsÃ¢â¬â¢ 22highlighting the fact that Disraeli was fighting the issue of Corn law repeal based on his principles of agricultural protection as well as a having a sense duty to his constituents. This interpretation ca n also be verified by the fact that 242 former supporters of Peel also rebelled against his 1846 proposal for Corn Law repeal. The idea that the rebel against Peel over the corn Law crisis was based on a notion of having a duty to his electorate is also present in WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict of 1846 where he states that Disraeli attacked Peel for Ã¢â¬Ëchanging his policy without consulting the electorate or listening to the views of his supportersÃ¢â¬â¢23. Ian Machin also concedes that although Disraeli did have something to gain from usurping Peel, there was a strong public opinion in the constituencies that was for the idea of retaining the Corn Laws. Therefore one can logically conclude that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks on Peel in 1846 DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks on Peel could be argued as being unprincipled on the surface as they are often seen as being based upon an underlining tone of resentment and antipathy due to PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to give him a position of power in 1841. However there is stronger evidence to suggest that DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks were due to PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal of the Conservative party as well as pressure from his constituents. However, once one has argued away the beliefs that Disraeli was unprincipled due to his relationship with Peel, one is left with arguments DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporaries held for him being unprincipled. The majority of reasons why Disraeli is often seen as an unscrupulous politician are due to his background. Due to DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish heritage he was often received with Anti-Semitic bias. This is recognised when Derby writes Ã¢â¬Å"there is no one in our arty who can compete with youÃ¢â¬ ¦butÃ¢â¬ ¦your formal establishment in the post of leader would not meet with a general and cheerful approvalÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This means that whilst Disraeli was a recognised key political player in the Conservative party (thus eliminating the idea that he was a mere adventurer), his personal background would always work against him. However not only did DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish roots help to hinder his political progression. However all this argument is invalid since it does not state that he was unprincipled due to his political beliefs, but rather, that he was unprincipled due to his ethnicity. These arguments are therefore irrational and further alienate the claim that Disraeli was an irrational politician as historians no longer view Disraeli with a racial bias. In conclusion, the statement Ã¢â¬Å"An unprincipled adventurer in politicsÃ¢â¬ is not a fair interpretation of Disraeli in the period 1837- 1846. By studying DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s early political career there is a key notion that the principles of a paternalistic Romanticised society is truly maintained, as well as a belief that the Tory party is the true party of the nation. In addition in regards to DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s dispute with Peel over the 1846 Corn Law crisis, one can see that on deeper examination the underlying roots of DisraeliÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments were held upon the as same convictions which he campaigned for as an independent MP and the same principles that made him a Ã¢â¬ËRadical ToryÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore one can convincingly argue that during the period 1837- 1846 Disraeli was as principled as a politician can be. 1 T.A. Jenkins Ã¢â¬ËBenjamin Disraeli and the Spirit of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢, History Today 54:12 (December 2004), 9-15 2 Ian. St John, Disraeli and the Art of Victorian Politics, (London: Anthem) 2005, pg 10 3 Jenkins, 54 4 William M. Kuhn, the Politics of Pleasure: A portrait of Benjamin Disraeli (Michigan: Pocket) 2007 pg 174 5 William M. Kuhn, the Politics of Pleasure: A portrait of Benjamin Disraeli (Michigan: Pocket) 2007 pg 175 6 Norman. Gash, Politics in the Age of Peel (London: Longman) 1953, pg 395 7 Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction, (Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillian),2003 p88 8 Norman Lowe, Mastering Modern British History, (Basingstoke: Macmillan) 1984 pg 118 9 Wikipedia, Young England, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young_england (January 4, 2009) 10 Ian . St John, Disraeli and the Art of Victorian Politics, (London: Anthem) 2005, pg 10 11 William M. Kuhn, the Politics of Pleasure: A portrait of Benjamin Disraeli (Michigan: Pocket) 2007 pg 185 12 Norman Lowe, Mastering Modern British History, (Basingstoke: Macmillan) 1984 pg 247 13 Christopher Hibbert, Disraeli- A personal history, (Hampshire: HarperPerennial) 2004 pg 160 14 Christopher Hibbert, Disraeli- A personal history, (Hampshire: HarperPerennial) 2004 pg 160 15 Christopher Hibbert, Disraeli- A personal history, (Hampshire: HarperPerennial) 2004 pg 160 16 John Walton, Disraeli, (London: Lancaster pamphlets) 1990 pg 59 17 Christopher Hibbert, Disraeli- A personal history, (Hampshire: HarperPerennial) 2004 pg 160 18 Ian Machin, Disraeli (Canada: Pearson Education) 1996 pg 110 19 Mary Dicken, Disraeli, (London: HarperCollins) 2004 pg 20 20 David Eastwood, Ã¢â¬ËPeel-Statesman or TurncoatÃ¢â¬â¢, History Today 23 (December 1995)pg 20-25 21 Mary Dicken, Disraeli, (London: HarperCollins) 2004 pg 17 22 Mary Dicken, Disraeli, (London: HarperCollins) 2004 pg 19 23 John Walton, Disraeli, (London: Lancaster pamphlets) 1990 pg 8
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The process of adopting a child internationally is lengthy, costly, and both physically and emotionally exhausting.Since it takes so much to adopt, only a small number of Americans can and do; mostly middle- and upper-middle class couples.Therefore, many internationally adopted children grow up in an environment with ready access to resources, with adults who are able to support them financially and emotionally.In such narrow socioeconomic circumstances, the question then arises: What accounts for those internationally adopted children and youth who do not adjust well?What factors contribute to the normal, healthy development of these individuals?Examining international adoption also brings up this point:Is there really a significantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is also unclear from this study whether adoptee mothers were more receptive and sensitive to their child?s behavior. Also, perhaps attachment is not a factor in determining whether infants will grow up to be well-adjusted children and eventually adults. A longitudinal study conducted on trans-racially adopted infants would perhaps help answer this question.Perhaps at 11 months of age, an infant hasn?t reached the point where he or she stops instinctually attaching. In looking at the circumstances of an international adoption, one cannot discount the influence that both parents have on the child.A study comparing Israeli families who adopted domestically with those who adopted internationally found significant differences in parenting styles and family life (Levy-Schiff, Zoran, Shulman, 1997).Overall, parents who internationally adopted generated more positive feelings about the adoption and raising their child.In turn, their adopted children perceived the family environment as ?more controlling? than did the domestically adopted children (Levy et al, p. 123). These findings suggest that the event of internationally adopting affects the way that a parent perceives their child, and in turn how they treat the child.This could have an impact on development.A possible explanation for a difference in treatment is thatShow MoreRelatedRacism And Racial Segregation : A Color Blind Society1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhich perceive race in America through differential diagnosis. The dogma of race has logical consequences that are profoundly important. If blacks, for example, are equal to whites in every way, what accounts for differential success levels or other factors? Since any theory of racial differences has been outlawed, America must be racked with a pervasive and horrible understanding of the concept of race since it has a deeper literal meaning than phenotypically. Through this textual evidence I plan toRead MoreEssay on Experiencing Immigration2493 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesworking conditions, socialization, and increasing assimilation into th e American culture were experiences common to all immigrating groups. These areas of adjustment and the ways in which they evolved illustrates typical immigrant experiences and proves that this was an era that truly shaped the evolution of the world. In general, factors pushing immigrants to emigrate from their own countries take on similar themes across groups. Fleeing religious persecution, seeking political asylum, andRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Children And Adolescents Essay1931 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesweaker. Not only that, but it can also be harmful to children and adolescents who are constantly moving through their identity development (Kira, Lewandowski, Ashby, Somers, Chiodo, Odenat, 2014). It is also said that involvement in bullying, as the bully or victim, has negative effects on the physical and psychological health of children and on their future psychosocial adjustment as adults (Vaillancourt, Hymel, McDougall, 2013). According to Copeland (2013), research on bullying can be tracedRead MoreCyberbullying And Race / Ethnicity : A Study Of Philadelphia High School Students2894 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesmarginalized race/ethnic identity. It also attempts to investigate the frequency of bullying and harassments of students with multiple marginalized identities in comparison to students with one or no marginalized identities. There has been research exploring the bullying and harassment of students based on social identities such as race/ethnicity, ability status, gender/sex assigned at birth, gender identity /or gender expression, and sexual orientation. While there has been some examination of the frequencyRead MoreLife Span Development Reflective Paper5968 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesLife Span Development Reflective Paper Introduction Brenda Watson Leadership Coaching September 19, 2010 This has been a very fascinating journey from prenatal, birth to old age. The goal of this paper is to show how my knowledge and understanding of life span development has increased, as well as demonstrate how this knowledge and understanding will apply to and can be used within my area of specialization, Leadership Coaching. As a Social Worker, I have had the opportunity to work withRead Morecourse outline4047 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pageschange, managing change, theories and methods of change, and innovation and leadership in organizations. COURSE OVERVIEW: This course provides an understanding of change in organizations. Students will learn about the internal and external factors contributing to the need for organizational change, how to diagnose problems accurately, and how to implement effective and sustaining change strategies, including the introduction of technology. A variety of topics will be covered such as theoretical modelsRead MoreLabeling Theory3304 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesbeing. Labeling theory or social reaction theory, focuses on the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from norms. Labeling theory or social reaction theory is concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. Lemert was as the founder of the societal reactionRead MoreChallenges Integrating Students With Disabilities6780 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pageschances for them to sustain themselves financially with dignity and greater participation as citizens. The call to inclusion for academic institutions is to make programs and services accessible to all students, which may include making physical adjustments to facilities, providing accessible information technology, and incorporating the concept of universal design in programming and activities. This chapter is designed to assist student affairs professionals in providing full and meaningful accessRead MoreFactual Essay About Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease2424 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesPULMONARY DISEASE [pic] INTRODUCTION Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents significant challenges to a persons ability to carry out functional tasks and participate in social networks. Such factors are widely recognized as contributing to a persons sense of self identity, health and well-being. (Kerr, A, and C Ballinger 2010) Although there is no cure, the symptoms of COPD can be managed and damage to your lungs can be slowed down. If you smoke, quitting is the most importantRead MoreCorporate Identity10953 Words Ã |Ã 44 Pages T. Balmer Professor of Corporate Identity Bradford School of Management Emm Lane Bradford West Yorkshire BD9 4JL England U.K. and Dr Helen Stuart Lecturer School of Business and Informatics McAuley Campus Australian Catholic University PO Box 456 Virginia Brisbane 4014 QLD, Australia. ABSTRACT There can be few organizations that have received as much media attention as British Airways (BA). This is particularly in regard to its various changes of identity/corporate brand that have been key
Friday, December 27, 2019
Although irony may be associated with negative events or actions, it can also be a sign of good for characters within stories. According to Dictionary.com, irony in literature is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a technique of indicating, as through character or plot development, an intention or attitude opposite to that which is actually or ostensibly stated.Ã¢â¬ The use of irony is found within the novel The Kite Runner, written by Khaled Hosseini. Hosseini uses irony to portray and develop the main dynamic character in this story, Amir. Most of the major events Amir is faced with at a younger age seemingly come full circle when he reaches adulthood. Irony plays a role as Amir lives through tragic events that ultimately teach him how to become a better person.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Best friends typically have loyalty that comes with the friendship, and Hassan was all about the loyalty, whereas Amir had trouble giving Hassan what he deserves. For instance, after Amir had won the kite ra ce, Hassan had caught his kite to then be met by a bully, Assef, and his friends in an alley way. Amir is a bystander to what would be the raping of Hassan and Amir tells it as Ã¢â¬Å"I could step in to that alley, stand up for Hassan-the way heÃ¢â¬â¢d stood up for meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ to then finish with, Ã¢â¬Å"In the end, I ran.Ã¢â¬ (Hosseini 77). Amir immediately regrets his self-proclaimed cowardly decision. As Amir grows older, the circle of life catches up to him and he has the opportunity to stand up for HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Sohrab, against Assef. Revisiting the experience, he had of standing up for Sohrab, he admits Ã¢â¬Å"That was the first time IÃ¢â¬â¢d fought anyone.Ã¢â¬ (Hosseini 288). Amir is aware that he messed up with his opportunities with Hassan, in turn he ironically is the first to stand up for Sohrab who was up against the same person that troubles Hassan. Growing up the way Amir did as a Pashtun, it could be easy to see him take what he had for granted. Although Afghanistan is a poor country, Baba and Amir has the approval of everyone in town that Baba Ã¢â¬Å"had built the most beautiful house in the Wazir Akbar Khan districtÃ¢â¬ (Hosseini 4). In terms of what people could have inShow MoreRelatedRedemption in The Kite Runner1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"For you, a thousand times over.Ã¢â¬ In The Kite Runner by Kahled Hosseini, there is a recurring theme of redemption that is portrayed by various literary devices. Kahled excellently juxtaposes devices such as irony, symbolism, and foreshadowing to show redemption within his first novel. As a foreword, the story of The Kite Runner focuses on a man named Amir. In his childhood, he enjoyed a high-class life in Kabul, Afghanistan, living with his father Baba. They have two servants, Ali and his son HassanRead MoreLord of The Rings/Kite Runner Compare and Contrast Essay1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKite Runner and Lord of the Flies: Compare and Contrast What objects do you associate innocence with? Marriage, virginity, a childhood toy? When we think of dominance we think of war; we think of negativity. When the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëparental influenceÃ¢â¬â¢ comes to mind, we go to our mothers tucking us into bed and watching the game with our fathersÃ¢â¬âat least that is what us lucky ones think of. Not everyone is lucky enough to have that innocence stored forever, violent free lives, and a mother and father byRead MoreHistory Now1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA, Order and Chaos Order and Chaos: Introduction Section Warm-Up: Product Loyalty Loyalty vs. Betrayal Literary Elements: Symbolism Tutorial: Symbols and Symbolism Reading 1: Two Kinds, by Amy Tan Practice: Symbolism Loyalty and Betrayal Theme Quiz, 40 points Friday, 2/10/2012 Begin Unit: Loyalty and Betrayal, Section B, Context Context: Introduction Section Warm-Up: A Context Riddle Reading 2: from Communists in the State Department, by Sen. Joseph McCarthy Exploring the ContextRead MoreSymbolism Of Kite Running By Khaled Hosseini1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKali Denney Mr. Snyder AP Literature and Composition 11 December 2015 Symbolism of Kite Running In this essay the book being discussed is, Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini. Khaled HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s biography will be discussed as well as the historical influences upon him that affect the novel as a whole. The essay will contain a critical analysis as well as an analysis of the critical response to the work by others. In the novel and now a grown man, the main character Amir recalls events in his childhoodRead MoreThe Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesusually feel guilty and bitter about the situation. The Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini, revolves around the theme of redemption. Redemption can be used as a cure for guilt. Throughout the novel, the author shows that redemption requires some sort of sacrifice and the only way that is possible is if you can forgive yourself from the mistakes you have made in the past. Khaled Hosseini effectively portrays redemption through motifs such as rape, irony and flashbacks, symbolism, and the development of AmirRead MoreEssay about Characters of The Kite Runner854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPublished by Riverhead Books in 2003, Khaled Hosseini wrote The Kite Runner, a powerful story of love, fear, friendship, redemption, and the reality of the cruel world we live in. In this tale, you develop a personal relationship with the characters as you feel their emotions. Khaled Hosseini brings his characters to life eloquently. The relationship between son and father, rich and poor, countryman and his country, Pashtun and Hazara, friend and brother, andRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe author of The Kite Runner is an Afghan man named Khaled Hosseini. He was born in Kabul, Afghanistan on May 4, 1965. He wrote two other noteworthy novels one being world renowned like The Kite Runner. He writes his novels to enlighten readers about Afghanistan, his home, not simply defining it as war and terrorist but an actual place in the past filled with people and life. The Kite Runner is a Modernism novel. The 20th century brought changes to literature, starting to speak on politics andRead MoreThe Kite Runner: Highlighting the Plight of Afghanistan1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesliterature and the literature of his, now changed, native country. Lamenting his countries ruin, Hosseini uses the tragic metamorphosis in his country as the backbone of his novels. Born in Kabul, Afghanistan on March 4, 1965, Hosseini loved poetry and kite fighting. When he turned five, he moved with his family to Tehran. Here, Hosseini taught his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s Hazara cook how to read and write, showing Hosseini an early view into the cruelties of the world and the power of words (Esten). After a stay inRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini Essay1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCecilia Womack October 19th 2016 The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini The Kite Runner is based in Afghanistan where Baba and Amir his son live with also Ali and Hasaan who are like brothers to both Baba and Amir. They are living a wonderful life until Amir encounters an image he can never forget, seeing his best friend Hasaan being brutally raped. Amir fails to confront this distraught action with others and he lives with guilt and tries to cope. Still this unforgettable guilt follows him to AmericaRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini2486 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini is a brilliantly crafted story about the friendship between the son of a wealthy man and the son of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s servant. The main character Amir, flashbacks to 26 years ago, when him and his friend Hassan, the servantÃ¢â¬â¢s son, were the tightest of friends, playing together even though they belong to different castes. These bullies come up and fight against Hassan, as he belongs to the Hazara sect. Life moves along and the two friends are in a kite flying competition
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Case Study Ã¢â¬ËTechnical Instruments Pty LtdÃ¢â¬â¢ Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Analyse strategic and operational plans 3. Consult line and senior managers to identify human resources needs 4. Develop options for delivery of human resource services 5. Comply with legislative requirements 6. Develop and agree on strategies 7. Agree and document roles and responsibilities of human resource teams 1. Introduction The purpose of the report is to analyse the current state of human resources side of Jim PalmerÃ¢â¬â¢s Technical instruments Pty Ltd business. To identify the critical HR systems and services needed at TI and the most effective strategies for delivering them to TI. This report describes the range ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Consult line and senior managers to identify human resources needs * Involving HR Team to clearly understand business goals. * Training and promoting communication between staff members and management * Promote team environment by having meetings involving staff at lower level of structure and management * Employ a recruitment manager * In house training and introducing development plans * Open door policy management by walking around * Buy refreshments to increase their morale and decrease turnover 4. Develop options for delivery of human resource services * Promoting staff which can be a positive form of employee development * Require employees who attend external job training to do job training 5. Comply with legislative requirements * Industrial Relations Act 1979 The Act aims to provide for the observance and enforcement of agreements and awards made for the settlement of industrial disputes, as well as rights and obligations in relation to good faith bargaining. * Long Service Leave ActShow MoreRelatedTorts9373 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesof each student for his/her own learning. Students are expected to prepare by doing the prescribed reading before each seminar. Students should timetable 6 -7 hours per week in which to complete the readings, work on seminar exercises and maintain study notes. 2. Each teacher has his/her individual teaching style, but generally the classes are conducted as interactive seminars which include questions and discussion. Students are encouraged to contribute to class discussion and ask questions toRead MoreMedia Law: Defamation, Copyright, Etc23627 Words Ã |Ã 95 PagesIdentification Plaintiffs must prove that the publication complained of was of and concerning them. In this context, it is not how the words were intended but how they would reasonably be understood: E Hulton Co v Jones  AC 20. In that case the Sunday Chronicle published a piece of fiction referring to Artemus Jones with a woman who is not his wife, who must be, you know - the other thing! A real Artemus Jones succeeded in a defamation claim. Similarly, in Lee v Wilson and MacKinnonRead MoreMedia Law: Defamation, Copyright, Etc23639 Words Ã |Ã 95 PagesIdentification Plaintiffs must prove that the publication complained of was of and concerning them. In this context, it is not how the words were intended but how they would reasonably be understood: E Hulton Co v Jones  AC 20. In that case the Sunday Chronicle published a piece of fiction referring to Artemus Jones with a woman who is not his wife, who must be, you know - the other thing! A real Artemus Jones succeeded in a defamation claim. Similarly, in Lee v Wilson and MacKinnonRead MoreAn Organisation Study in Apollo Tyres Company10707 Words Ã |Ã 43 PagesAN ORGANISATIONAL STUDY IN APOLLO TYRES LTD PERAMBRA A Project Report Submitted to Calicut University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award Of the Degree of BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION By SAJA.K.A Registration no: Under the guidance of SREEJA MISS Department Of Commerce Management Studies ANSAR WOMENÃ¢â¬â¢S COLLEGE PERUMPILAVU CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the mini project entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational StudyÃ¢â¬ is a bonafide record of the work done by SAJA.K.A, RegistrationRead MoreThe Impact of Corporate Culture on Company Performance4856 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pages388 Business Intelligence Journal August Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance Olu Ojo Abstract This research study assesses empirically the impact of corporate culture on employee job performance as well as organisational productivity using Nigerian banking industry as the case study. We try to ascertain if organizational culture affects employee job performance, and to formulate recommendations regarding corporate culture and employee job performanceRead MoreAn Organizational Study Done at Apollo Tyres Company Perambra.10400 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesAN ORGANISATIONAL STUDY IN APOLLO TYRES LTD PERAMBRA A Project Report Submitted to Calicut University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award Of the Degree of BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION CONTENTS CHAPTER NO: TITLE page no:- 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 Read Morecustomer satisfaction survey at axis bank4808 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesÃ¯ » ¿TABLE OF CONTENT SR.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO. Executive Summary CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction of Topic Objective Of Study Scope Of Study Limitation Of Study CHAPTER 2 PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION 2.1 History Detail Of The Organization 2.3 Vision and Mission CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Sample Design 3.2 Source and Method of Data Collection CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETIONS CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS CHAPTERRead MoreManagement and Study Unit41775 Words Ã |Ã 168 PagesMANAGEMENT STUDY GUIDE FOR MODULE 2 PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT PPSM026 i Ã © 2011 University of South Africa All rights reserved Printed and published by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria Author: Ms Irma Fourie PPSM026/1/2011-2013 ii PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT (PPSM026) CONTENTS TOPIC 1: THE PURCHASING FUNCTION: AN OVERVIEW The purchasing function in perspective The task of purchasing and supply management Purchasing processes and procedures Study unit 1:Read MoreManagement and Study Unit41787 Words Ã |Ã 168 PagesMANAGEMENT STUDY GUIDE FOR MODULE 2 PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT PPSM026 i Ã © 2011 University of South Africa All rights reserved Printed and published by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria Author: Ms Irma Fourie PPSM026/1/2011-2013 ii PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT (PPSM026) CONTENTS TOPIC 1: THE PURCHASING FUNCTION: AN OVERVIEW The purchasing function in perspective The task of purchasing and supply management Purchasing processes and procedures Study unit 1: Study unitRead MoreValuing Biotech Companies5240 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesFORENSIC ACCOUNTING SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP VALUING A BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANY DAVID RANDERSON ACUITY TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT PTY LTD Melbourne, May 2001 1. Valuation Methodologies Techniques used for valuing intangible assets, of which intellectual property (IP) is one form, may be put into three main categories1: 1. Cost Based; 2. Market Based; and 3. Revenue Based. Biotechnology companies, because their main assets are generally IP, have values that are invariably determined by their intangible
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Quesstion: Discuss about the Injunctions and Specific Performance. Answer: Introduction: Law related to equity is based on the precedent, and the rules are developed from previous situations which they have deal with. However, there are number of people who disagree with the changing laws and law of equity and the rules that have been accepted by previous judges who result in precedent and now known as maxims. These maxims are used by Courts as guidelines. This essay states the equity maxim Equity will not suffer a wrong to be without a remedy with different case laws. Subsequently, this maxim is concluded with brief conclusion. Equity will not suffer a wrong to be without a remedy: Maxims are considered as body of law which is developed in way of equity and it also help the way through which equity operates. It must be noted that these maxims are not compulsory in nature and it applies on the discretion of Court. Equity will not suffer a wrong to be without a remedy is the maxim which is developed by common law, and it had no legal remedies but only monetary damages. Maxims must be treated as caution in regards to present law, and it is mainly used by beneficiaries of a trust whose rights were recognized as common law. Under this maxim, equitable remedies such as injunctions and specific performance are given. In case Hussey v Palmer 1972, Lord Denning attempts to alter this maxim which becomes unsuccessful. While seeking equitable relief, person who has been wronged has the stronger hand, and if person has stronger hand than he is the one who has capacity to ask for legal remedy hat is judicial relief. In equity the main form of remedy is usually given is specific performance and injunction. These are some superior remedies who administered at common law such as damages. For this Latin legal maxim is ubi jus ibi remediam. Case law which deals with this maxim is Ashby v. White 13 End P. 253. In this case, court stated when law clothes a man with a right then it also provides different way through which person gets that right and remedies, and co-exist and mere attribution related to legal rights without remedies are meaningless. It must be noted that, this maxim ubi Jus ibi remedium allowed the chancellor to intervene in the administration of the justice for the purpose of giving relief by common law and also help the litigant by offering facilities in lieu of evidence and the procedure which usually not adopted by Court. Conditions related to Maxim: Following are some conditions which are related to maxim: If any party lost his right or waived his right because of his own mistake then this maxim is not applicable. This maxim will not apply if there is any moral infringement and becomes incapable of enforcement. Limitation related to Maxim: Following are some limitations which are related to this Maxim: Both right and remedy must be I the jurisdiction of common law. Court does not have authorization to put question mark on acts of state. Non-Application of Maxim: In following cases this maxim will not applied: This maxim is not applied when there is any breach related to moral right because equity only helps when legal right of the person is breached and not moral right. When jurisdiction of common law Courts are there then this Maxim is not applied. This maxim is not applied when there is negligence on part of plaintiff. After considering above facts, it is clear that Equity Courts are the courts of natural justice, and whenever any right is infringed then remedy is available for that infringement. In other words, there is always a remedy for wrong. Only those rights which were recognized by the law will be enforced by the Court. This concept of law is recognized in Ubi Jus ibi Remedium which is considered as whole crux of jurisdiction of equity. It expressed that every right of person will be enforced and wrong act is redressed by equity. However, it must be noted that if such right is recognized by common law then no relief is granted by equity. Conclusion: After concluded, it is clear that basic idea behind this maxim is no wrong should be underdressed if Court has authorization to redress by Court. When common law provides any right then it also provides remedy for enforcing that right but there is some limitation also it does not provide remedies for all wrongs. Bibliography Law Teacher. The Law Of Equity, https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/property-trusts/the-law-of-equity.php, Accessed on 5th October 2017. You are law. 20 Maxims of Equity The Heart of Winning, https://www.youarelaw.org/20-maxims-of-equity-the-heart-of-winning/, Accessed on 3rd October 2017. Hussey v Palmer 1972 Ashby v. White 13 End P. 253.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Table of Contents The Geo-demographics Socio-economic characteristics of consumers Psycho-behavioural characteristics Consumption patterns of consumers Consumer savings Major trends References The Geo-demographics To understand the Geo-demographic factors of the Singaporean market, age, education level, household structure, population, and income distribution of its consumers should be analyzed. According to the current demographic studies, the population of Singapore is approximately 5.9 million. The native population is 3.84 million, whereas the immigrant population is 1.56 million (Wilson, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Singapore Market and its Issues specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Globally, the nation is among the top ten countries with the highest percentage of millionaires. It is estimated that the ratio of millionaires to every household is one to six. Severe poverty is very rare in Singapor e. Despite its economic success, the nation is considered to be one of the leading countries with the highest income disparities. The measure of income inequality is calculated based on individual household earnings. The lowest income earner is paid $1000 or less per month. The top income earners are paid 10 to 20 times of this amount. After government taxation, Singapore has a Gini coefficient of around 0.478, which confirms that there is a huge market-income inequality. The transfer of cash, social security, and income taxes has contributed to the increased income inequality in the Singaporean markets. The most discriminated part of the population in terms of employment is the elderly people, the youth, women, and the migrants. This part of population is vulnerable to exploitation. They earn lower wages because the government policies do not specify the minimum wage rates. This low wage and an increased unemployment rate among representatives of this marginalised population have e nhanced income inequality. Many Singaporeans are educated. It is estimated that about 65% of the population are literate. The varying age and education of the population have led to varied needs and demands, thus marketers should monitor these factors closely. Socio-economic characteristics of consumers The decisions of consumers are influenced by several factors. Socioeconomic factors dictate what one chooses, purchases, as well as what products and services to consume. Social factors, which include friends, role models, living standards, and reference groups, influence the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Singaporean living standards have been improved, and this has changed their income expenditures from consumer to branded luxury products and services (Pacek, 2012). Unlike before, the number of Singaporean consumers travelling abroad during t he holidays has increased. Over the last few decades, the Singaporean government has played a great role in education of its citizens, thus translating to well-paying jobs. This has led to improved living standards. Currently, a number of its citizens are able to afford decent housing and sophisticated products and services. Psycho-behavioural characteristics Psychological and behavioural factors influence the consumer purchasing decision in a number of ways. Purchasing can be done either individually or in a group. Factors such as family, friends, and society or peer groups have a great influence on the consumers of certain products. Motivation is one of the factors that psychologically influence Singaporean consumers. There is a need for selective brands and prestige among the consumers in Singapore. This is fostered by the fact that most of the consumers in this country have toured many places around the world. This has tremendously changed the buying behaviours of the consumers in the country. Perception also plays an important role in the consumer buying behaviour. Consumers in Singapore have different perceptions about products and services they consume. It is obvious that not all consumers have the same tastes and preferences. Therefore, marketers should study the psychological factors to promote their branded products. Notably, the Singaporean consumers are keen when choosing their brands and prestige. They are sophisticated buyers. The western culture has distorted the beliefs and attitudes of consumers. This influence is predominant among the Singaporean youth consumers. They have embraced the western values and beliefs. This has influenced their buying behaviours. Equally, the Singaporean consumers prefer shopping on self-service supermarkets. Consumption patterns of consumers Due to improved living standards of the people of Singapore, the consumer expenditure has changed greatly over the last few decades. Research has shown that from around 1978, Singaporean households spend a great percentage of their income on consumable goods and services. A larger portion of this percentage is spent on communication and transportation services.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Singapore Market and its Issues specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Actually, about two-thirds of the household expenditure are spent on buying and fuelling of cars. The health and education sectors in the last few years have risen by around 68%, thus improving the living standards of Singaporeans. They are increasingly spending only on luxury goods compared to consumer goods. This had a great influence on the market needs of the Singaporeans. In the recent past, the western culture has interfered with their traditional values and believes influencing what they purchase and consume. The changes in the lifestyles have also changed the consumer patterns. The Singaporean consumers have become more se lective in terms of both prestige and brand of the product. The sophistication in purchasing has been enhanced by the increased education level and media exposure of the Singaporean consumers. This has consequently led to high income and high purchasing power of the population. Currently, more families in Singapore have embraced holidays and leisure abroad as part of their lifestyle. Consumer savings The influence of western and eastern cultures among the Singaporeans has created sophisticated purchasing behaviours and made a number of their consumers spend much of their income. Consumers spend a large portion of their income on products such as fashion clothes, advanced gadgets, travels and leisure, skin and beauty related products. A lot of spending by consumers means that less money is available for savings. Only the educated and rich Singaporeans are able to save. Major trends Singapore population has encountered both social and economic changes. These have had great impacts on the markets. The female population has increased its literacy level and their percentage in the labour force. The government policies with respect to family planning have led to a total change in the age distribution structure of the population. This has led to diversified needs among people. The marketers should analyze this trend since it has a great effect in the marketing field. Due to increased levels of education, the Singaporeans are able to secure well-paying jobs and attain a higher consumer purchasing power in their markets. This has actually led to a rise in their real income. The economy in Singapore has experienced great extent of urbanization.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People have moved to flats and stopped living in their sine-roofed residents. Currently, shopping malls are shifting to the estates from the CBDs. Similarly, there is a declined in private means of transport compared to the public means. Lastly, enhanced Singaporean living standards are progressively changing their income expenditures from consumer to branded luxury products and services. References Pacek, N. (2012). The Future of Business in Emerging Markets The success factors for market growth in the 21st century.. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. Wilson, P. (2011). Challenges for the Singapore economy after the global financial crisis. Singapore: World Scientific. 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